July 12, 2024


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What is an electric car and how do they work?

Electric cars are nothing new. In fact, the earliest EVs hit the road in the late 19th century. Readers of a certain age will also remember the evocative sound of electric milk floats delivering bottles each morning.

What is an electric car

© Provided by Motoring Electric
What is an electric car

Without going into a full history lesson, throughout the 20th century, petrol and diesel cars dominated the market. Electric vehicles simply didn’t have the range, price or flexibility to make them worthy alternatives to a conventional car.

Times are changing, though. Although the numbers are still relatively small, electric cars are increasing in popularity. At the end of August 2021, pure electric cars had a 10.9 percent market share in the UK. That’s up from 6.4 percent in 2020.

Here, we’ll explain the basics of an electric car in simple terms.

What is an electric car?

Honda e

© Provided by Motoring Electric
Honda e

Electric car, electric vehicle (EV), battery electric vehicle (BEV), all-electric car, pure electric car – there are many names, but they’re fundamentally the same thing. The one difference is that ‘EV’ and ‘BEV’ can also be used to describe an electric van, bus or truck.

An electric car features a large battery pack that sends power to an electric motor. This drives the front, rear or all four wheels, depending on the configuration.

Batteries are measured in kilowatt-hours (kWh) of energy – the larger the battery capacity, the greater the car’s electric range. A standard Nissan Leaf, for example, features a 40kWh battery, which is good for up to 168 miles. Meanwhile, the 62kWh version can deliver up to 239 miles.

In most cases, the electric version of a car looks almost identical to its petrol or diesel equivalent. Examples of this include the Peugeot e-208, Vauxhall Corsa-e, Kia e-Niro, Hyundai Kona Electric and Mini Electric.

Porsche Taycan

© Provided by Motoring Electric
Porsche Taycan

Others are easier to spot. Take the Honda e, which was developed from the ground up as an electric car. It’s a similar story with all Tesla models, the Jaguar I-Pace and the Porsche Taycan.

In many respects, the basics of an electric car will be familiar to anyone who has driven a conventional vehicle. There are four wheels, up to seven seats, space for your luggage and a conventional steering wheel. The key difference is you don’t need to fill it up with fuel. Instead, an electric car needs to be recharged.

Charging can be done via a domestic socket or wall box. Typically, an overnight charge will provide between 100 and 300 miles of electric range, depending on the vehicle in question.

Alternatively, you can charge the battery via the network of public chargers. Depending on the model, it might be possible to charge to 80 percent capacity in as little as 20 minutes.

Discover how to find your nearest electric car charger

What else do I need to know about electric cars?

Skoda Citigo e IV

© Provided by Motoring Electric
Skoda Citigo e IV

We explore the ins and outs of running an electric car in separate articles on Motoring Electric. For example, we look at how to charge an electric car, how to drive one and the things you need to consider before venturing down electric avenue.

For now, it’s worth noting that an electric car is very different to a hybrid. A plug-in hybrid will provide a limited amount of electric range before the petrol or diesel engine takes over. In a standard hybrid (also known as a ‘self-charging hybrid’), the electric motor is there to improve efficiency, rather than provide any electric range.

In an electric car, there’s no internal combustion engine (ICE). They’re 100 percent electric, which also means they deliver zero emissions while driving. The government will even provide a discount if you choose certain, more affordable electric cars.

It’s time to stop viewing the electric car as an unconventional and niche choice. As we approach the ban on new petrol, diesel and hybrid cars, electric cars will become mainstream. You might find that they’re the only socially acceptable form of personal transport, with an increasing number of cities choosing to ban conventional cars.


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The post What is an electric car and how do they work? appeared first on Motoring Electric.

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